Treasures of Central Plains · The Fine Details
Behind丨The Jiahu Bone Flute

河南省人民政府門戶網站 www.qaujok.icu 時間:2020-04-30 17:29 來源:Henan Museum

  Editor's notes: For those who are staying at home during the global COVID-19 pandemic, an excellent cultural feast is needed to cheer them up! Ma Xiaolin, director of Henan Museum, has spent many years studying abroad or serving as a visiting scholar. As an attempt to promote Henan’s cultural relics “going global” and realize the internationalization of Henan Museum, he has recorded a series of videos named “Treasures of China’s Central Plains” in English for the first time to tell the stories behind the cultural relics, present international friends with exquisite artifacts and demonstrate the profound Chinese civilization to the outside world.

      時下,全球疫情仍在持續,人們被困家中更需一股文化的力量來凝心聚氣。有著多年國外留學和擔任訪問學者經歷的河南博物院院長馬蕭林,首次以純英文的方式錄制《中原藏珍》系列視頻講述中國河南文物故事,向外國朋友展示古老器物的精美,傳遞源自久遠的中華文明,同時也是讓中原文物走向世界、實現河南博物院國際化的一項有益嘗試。

Episode I

第一集

The Jiahu Bone Flute

賈湖骨笛

  I. The flute

  一、骨笛

  The bone flute was unearthed from the Jiahu Site, Wuyang County, Henan Province, in 1987, thus its name the Jiahu bone flute. This 23.6cm-long flute was made from a wing bone of the red-crowned crane 8,000 years ago, with seven finger holes. The finger holes on this wind instrument were precisely drilled by first locating the hole for the tonic note “gong” in the Chinese pentatonic scale. The tonic note “gong” is equivalent to “Do” in modern music. The other finger holes were then fixed according to the place of the "gong" hole. However, a thinner flute sounded different from a thicker one. Thus, smaller holes were drilled next to the seven larger finger holes, for sound checking. The technique was quite similar to a modern one used on traditional Chinese wind instruments.

  賈湖骨笛,1987年出土于河南舞陽賈湖遺址,因而得名。笛身長23.6厘米,開有七孔,以鶴類禽鳥尺骨鉆孔制作而成,距今約8,000年。笛上音孔,以五聲音階中的“宮”音為基準,磨制精細。“宮”音相當于現代音樂中的“Do”音。其它音孔的位置根據“宮”音相繼確定。然而,由于骨管粗細不一,極易產生音差,故在七孔旁開小孔加以校正。骨笛的制作方法和過程,與現代中國民族管樂器的制作方法非常相似。

Treasures of China's Central Plains · The Fine Details Behind丨The Jiahu Bone Flu

  II. Excavation

  二、發掘

  Located in Wuyang County in central Henan and an important site from the Peiligang culture, the Jiahu Site expands over an area of over 50,000 square meters and dates back to 9,000–7,500 years ago. Eight excavation projects were launched in the site between 1983 and 2013. More than 3,000 square meters were under excavation and thousands of cultural relics unearthed, including more than 40 bone flutes.

  賈湖遺址,位于河南省舞陽縣,是裴李崗文化的重要遺存,占地面積5萬多平方米,距今9000 - 7500年。1983年至2013年間,考古人員對賈湖遺址進行了8次發掘,發掘面積3000多平方米,出土文物數以千計,其中包括40多支骨笛。

  The bone flute was in three pieces at the excavation. There were a number of joining holes, indicating that it had been carefully repaired and evidently a favorite to the owner. Yet, once restored, the three pieces made an intact bone flute that was dark brown in color and smooth in surface. The other bone flute unearthed together was well preserved.

  除了保存完整的骨笛外,有的骨笛在出土時就已經斷為三截,但每一斷裂處均有多個綴合孔,說明它折損后曾被精心修復,足見主人十分珍愛。修復后的骨笛整體呈褐色,通體光滑晶瑩。

  III. How was it made

  三、制作

  The bone flute was made from a wing bone of the red-crowned crane. The Jiahu Site was rich in fauna. Skeletons found there included those of swans, ring-necked pheasants, and red-crowned cranes. The bones of a red-crowned crane are hard and hollow. A primitive artisan may first cut off the bone heads on both ends. Then he would determine the placement of the finger holes before drilling them on the bone. Finally, tone tuning was made to this musical instrument. Cuts were found besides the finger holes, showing that repeated corrections had been made in the process. It was difficult to drill the finger holes and smaller tone-tuning holes on a hard yet fragile bone of a crane. Filing was not an easy job, either.

  賈湖遺址所在的地區,動植物資源豐富,在那里發現了大量野生動物的骨骼,包括天鵝、環頸野雞和丹頂鶴,骨笛的管身就是由丹頂鶴的翅膀骨制作而成。丹頂鶴的骨骼外堅內空,當時的工匠們在制作骨笛時會鋸掉兩端骨節,確定音孔的位置,鉆孔,最后調音。鉆孔旁邊還發現了一些鉆頭輕點后留下的痕跡,充分說明,在骨笛的制作過程中,需要不斷地進行校正。鶴骨堅硬卻脆弱,要在上面鉆出或者磨出圓潤規整、孔徑一致的音孔(以及更小的調音孔)并不是一件簡單的事情,如何保存也是一個問題。

  The microscopic examination showed spiral marks left by a running bit inside the finger holes. Hand drills and brad awls made of hard-textured materials such as crystal and flint were unearthed from the site. However, it was hard to reproduce the bone flute with similar tools and means. The Jiahu bone flute must have been a result of time-consuming experiments to find the best material and technique.

  考古專家在賈湖遺址里發現了一些水晶和隧石類堅硬材料制作而成的手鉆或錐鉆。在顯微鏡下,也可以看到鉆頭在音孔內留下的螺旋形鉆痕。在骨笛的制作過程中,先民們會進行數次嘗試,以便找到最好的材料和最適合的技術。然而,今天用類似的工具和手段也很難再制作出骨笛了。

  IV. Significance

  四、意義

  More than forty bone flutes were unearthed from the Jiahu Site. They evidently followed the line of development from being simple in shape and design to getting more complicated and refined. These bone flutes fitted well the archaeological phases they belonged to. The earliest Jiahu bone flutes were supposed to be made 9,000 years ago, progressively with two, five, or six finger holes. With a millennium development or so, the bone flutes were developed into a seven-hole instrument. Later, eight-hole bone flutes emerged. The musical scale grew from a four-tone one to a five-, six-, and seven-tone. There were even sound changes.

  賈湖骨笛經歷了不同的發展階段,早期形狀設計單一,后來逐漸復雜精良,這與賈湖文化的分期基本一致。賈湖遺址共發掘出土了四十多支骨笛,據推測,最早的賈湖骨笛制作于9000年前,開有兩孔、五孔或六孔。經過上千年的發展,骨笛已經成為一種七孔樂器。后來,還出現了八孔骨笛,音階也從四音發展到五音、六音和七音,而且還出現了變化音。

  Chinese music has a long history. It emerged in the production activities of primitive men. Primitive men of eight thousand years ago already played a "xiazhi" tune on the bone flute. It has been a piece of solid evidence to Chinese music in remote antiquity.

  中國音樂有著悠久的歷史,這與先民們的生產生活息息相關。八千年前的先民們就已經能夠使用骨笛吹奏出動人的下徵音階了。賈湖骨笛的發現,充分說明了遠古時期中國音樂的發展。

  The Jiahu bone flute served as an important object that facilitated our understanding and study of the development of the Chinese music civilization and its early form. The discovery of the Jiahu bone flute dates China’s music history back more than 8,000 years.

  同時,賈湖骨笛作為重要文物,有助于我們理解和研究中國音樂文化及其早期形式,并將中國音樂史的起源提前到了8000多年前。

  The Jiahu bone flute is believed to be the earliest wind instrument ever found in the world which remains playable even this day, and it provides an important clue to the study of the world’s music history. Also, the bone flute was a piece of solid evidence to the music art and creativity of primitive men. Ancient residents of the Jiahu Site successfully developed a two-hole bone flute to a seven-hole one. They may create the first bone flute unintentionally; yet, they later made one breakthrough after another with all their efforts.

  賈湖骨笛是世界上發現年代最早、至今尚可演奏的樂器,為世界音樂史的研究提供了重要線索,充分證明了先民們的音樂藝術和創造力。生活在賈湖附近的先民們,成功地把兩孔骨笛發展成了七孔。雖然他們可能是無意中制作出的第一支骨笛,但經過不懈努力,卻取得了一個又一個的突破。(來源/河南博物院 翻譯/趙漢青 審校/李文競)

Treasures of China's Central Plains · The Fine Details Behind丨The Jiahu Bone Flu

責任編輯:王靖

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